The State Emblem of the Republic of Kazakhstan
The Arms is the important symbol of statehood recognized all over the world. The term
"arms" occurs from a German word "heritage" or "inheritance" and is a distinctive sign
of the state. The history testifies, that the tribes of saks who lived in territory of
modern Kazakhstan, symbolized itself the special distinction, by totem which subsequently
has received the name "tamga". For the first time the given term has started to be used in Turkic Kaganat.
In well-known "The Dictionary of Turkic adverbs " by Makhmud Kashghari this term was
interpreted as a distinctive sign on the governor.
In known annals of Central Asian scientist Rashid ad Dyne (XIII-XIV centuries) there
is data on the Turkic governor Oguzkhan who distributed the grounds from Iran up to
Altai to his sons. Thus it handed over to them khan’s tamga as a symbol of sovereign authority.
Patrimonial and breeding tamgas were used by Kazakhs, and also turki-speaking the
ethnoses living on huge open spaces of Eurasia.
Tamgas of various geometrical forms were used in the form of the arms, press, instead of
signatures. Their images often meet on rocky figures and other ancient monuments of
writing and art. Tamgas served as a sign on the property belonging to a tribe, a sort,
family, the person. They were used for branding animals. This custom, by the way,
is kept at Kazakhs in countryside till now.
As a result of administrative-territorial reforms accepted in 1867-1868 there were city
and regional arms in Kazakhstan. All areas and the cities of the country which had a part
of Russian empire had the arms of the uniform sample. Samples of the arms of areas and
of some cities of Kazakhstan (16 district and district cities) are resulted in full
assembly of laws of Russian empire. In Kazakhstan the first approved arms is the arms
of Petropavlovsk, officially accepted on the 7th of September in 1842.
Within the Soviet authority there is some unification of the arms. The general arms
Kazakh SSR represented the image of a sickle and hammer on a red background in beams
and in a frame of ears, with an inscription in the Kazakh and Russian languages
«Proletarians of all countries, be united! ». In the top part of the arms a five-pointed
star, and in bottom "КССР" and " ҚССР ".
The arms of sovereign Kazakhstan was accepted in 1992. Its authors are known architects
Zhandarbek Malibekov and Shot-Aman Valikhanov.
The State Emblem of the Republic of Kazakhstan has the form of a circle and represents
the image of shanyrak (the top vaulted part of yurt) on a blue background from which in
all the parties in the form of solar beams miss yuck (support). The images of mythical
winged horses are located on the right and to the left of shanyrak. In the top part there
is the volumetric five-pointed star, and in the bottom part you can see an inscription
"Қазақстан". The colors of the image of a star, shanyrak, yucks, mythical horses, and
also an inscription «Қазақстан» are gold.
The found art decision is harmonious and unique from any point of view. Shanyrak, being
the basic part of yurt, under the form reminds a heavenly dome and in consciousness of
people is one of their important elements of lifestyle. A word «shanyrak» «the wheel of the Sun»
goes back to a word «chakra», designating on a Sanskrit "wheel", and in more philosophic sense.
Therefore it is not casual, that shanyrak is also original steppe hours - a parameter of speed
of movement of the Sun, as on labels on shanyrak solar time of day was defined.
As the symbol having totem value, shanyrak has been especially esteemed at ancient ancestors.
In the State Emblem of republic the image of shanyrak is an image of our general house,
the general Native land of people living in Kazakhstan. The happiness in this area depends
on well-being of everyone as durability of shanyrak depends on reliability of yuck (supports).
The future of the state also depends on unity and its consent Citizens, from their general
efforts for the good of the general house.
The images of winged mythical horses – tulpars are the important heraldic detail in
the State Emblem and carries out a role of the carrier of the certain idea. The image
of the Horse from time immemorial personifies such concepts, as bravery and will power.
Wings symbolize dream of multinational people of Kazakhstan of construction of the
strong and prospering state. They testify to pure thoughts and aspiration to perfection,
achievement of harmony in a society with the nature and a world civilization,
to achievement of the high purposes and developments. Therefore symbolical value of wings
in the State Emblem should be perceived as expression of natural human aspiration
to the high thoughts connected with idea of statehood.
Images and subjects in the form of horns were used in cult ceremonies and as tips
of military banners earlier. Symbols of heavenly good fortune, fertility and success
in the form of horns were always placed on the top as they in representation of
nomads contacted «World Mountain». Thus, the winged horse with horns is typological
image which has deep historical roots.
In an image of the State Emblem of republic there is one more detail - a five-pointed star.
As the symbol of authority, light leading on a life, aspirations to ennobled and eternity,
a star is used by mankind for a long time. The star is not characteristic attribute only
Russian state heraldry, for the first time it was entered into revolutionary symbolic of
Russia by Russian noblemen and even in the State Emblem of Russia it has appeared not at
once. It is impossible to use this figure in turned and asymmetrical kinds. The five-pointed
star personifies true light «the Star of morning». The image of a star in an image of the
State Emblem of the country expresses treasured dream of all Kazakhstan dwellers to join
community modern high-civilized and the developed states, to be opened to all people of all Continents of a planet.
The name of the state in itself is its linguistic, ethno cultural, symbolical sign.
It has the political value and, as a rule, is defined by the constitution of the country.
The name of our country Kazakhstan as the name of the state connected with the
Kazakh ethnos, often meets in historical sources, since XV-XVI centuries the
Primary color used in image of the State Emblem, color of gold which serves as
a symbol of riches, validity and magnanimity.
At the State Emblem there is also a color of a flag celestial-blue which successfully
is in harmony with color of gold.
Authors of the State Emblem of the Republic of Kazakhstan are Zhandarbek Malibekovich
Malibekov and Shot-Aman Ydyrysuly Ualikhan. Zhandarbek Malibekovich Malibekov is the
deserved architect of Uzbekistan. He was born on the 24th of March in aul Ekpindi of
area Zhanakorgan in Kyzylorda. He graduated from Tashkent polytechnic institute, the
faculty of architecture. He is the main architect of projects, the head of a town-planning
workshop of the Uzbek scientific research institute of the industry.
He took part in designing air terminal in Andizhan, buildings of regional post office in
Fergana, regional administration, drama theatre and the central library in Samarkand, of
some inhabited micro districts in the cities of Angrena, Fergana and Samarkand.
Shot-Aman Ydyrysuly Ualikhan is the author of the State Emblem of the Republic of Kazakhstan,
the deserved architect of Kazakhstan, the winner of the State premium of the republic,
the known public figure. He was born on the 26th of April, in aul Syrymbet of area
Ajyrtauski of the North-Kazakhstan. He worked as the employee of the Kazakh institute
of designing of city construction, as the assistant of the main architect in Almaty,
as the chairman of the Union of architects of Kazakhstan. He is the Chairman of the
Republican society of protection of monuments of history and culture. The main works
are monuments devoted for Ch.Valikhanov and A. Zhangildin, T.Bokin in Almaty, participation
in creative group on designing stadium «Dynamo». He is the head of creative group of authors
of the Monument of Independence in Almaty.